(20) The term for ‘brother’, aha during the BT, features additionally started augmented, even though this form is even used in Turoyo. Hertevin have one another ?aha and you will ?ahona (Jastrow 1988, 180), but Mandaic only has aha (Macuch 1965, 495).
Simultaneously, outside NENA, we have other terminology: Mandaic keraya (Macuch 1965, 509), Turoyo raglo (Jastrow 1985, 219)
(21) That rather mysterious items that is attested in all NENA languages but Sanandaj Christian (which probably only a chance pit on the research) are aqla ‘foot’. Krotkoff (1985, 130-31) argues that this word comes regarding the means ql ‘to become crooked’. All of the languages utilize the means aqla, but Koy Sanjaq aqla and Tisqopa (?)aqIlta.
(22) Other term discussed by Krotkoff (1985, 131-thirty two, 134) are baxta ‘woman’, which has supplanted the fresh new Syriac atta in most NENA, yet not in Turoyo or Mandaic. So it keyword seems to be a consequence of Kurdish baxt ‘honor’. It is interesting to remember one to an irregular plural survives during the several dialects: Tisqopa (?)InsI, Azerbaijan Jewish nise, and you will Halabja inse.
(23) An unexpected advancement pointed out because of the Noldeke (1868, 59) is rxata, add up to Syriac rhat. The alteration away from h so you’re able to x within one word was included in the NENA dialects in which the verb are attested. Examples: Sanandaj Religious raxet (Panoussi 1990), Urmi r-x-D (Hetzron 1969, 123), Jilu rxata, Hertevin rahet (Jastrow 1988, 222).
(24) Other unanticipated creativity ‘s the NENA verb ‘fear’, which takes the brand new forms zda?a great, zdaya, and you will zdala from the some languages. Macuch and you can Panoussi (1974, 50) promote a prospective derivation on Syriac ezda za ‘be shaken’. Variations toward infixed d are found in most the newest NENA dialects in which the supply are attested: Halabja ilha zadyane ‘God-dreading (pl.)’, Jilu +zdale ‘he feared’, Aradhin iza:dIl ‘he fears’ (Krotkoff 1982, 78), Zakho zde?lu ‘they feared’ (Sabar 1988, 1).(9)
Not absolutely all of one’s distinguishing attributes of NENA are located in a choice of Turoyo otherwise Mandaic
I think the a lot more than makes it clear that the NENA languages show a wide range of unique faculties which happen to be found neither in the previous attested types of Aramaic neither in the other living languages. These features assortment over the domains off phonology, morphology, plus the lexicon.
Specifically, all dialects off NENA agree in requirements 2, nine, 14, http://datingranking.net/cs/match-recenze/ fifteen, 16, 21, and 22. Every languages where i’ve advice together with agree on conditions 20, 23, and you can 24.
Just about Halabja concur from inside the standards 8 and you can eleven. Requirement 6 is found in most of the dialects but Halabja, Hertevin, and you can Sanandaj Religious.
Even with its interior departments, the fresh new NENA dialects mode a stunningly defined group, divided obviously of one another Turoyo and Mandaic. The position of them languages away from NENA pale is out of question.
The degree that has actually is actually common round the NENA is very epic as soon as we consider the astounding differences when considering different dialects. New influence of most other languages into the NENA could have been each other deep and large, plus the level of common intelligibility between dialects can be very small. The countless common innovations argue strongly for a common resource of this new NENA dialects, either in a single dialect or perhaps in a group of directly associated languages. At the same time, we are able to discern a handful of important bundles off isoglosses and therefore show the newest boundaries of dialect groups.
a) The fresh new dialect away from Halabja will not share particular essential designs hence can be found as a result of all other countries in the dialects. It will not mode an effective CCiC-ce preterite away from intransitive verbs (8), it’s got no b(it)- upcoming marker (10), possesses zero third individual only 1 copula which have 1 (11). This really is by far the most practical section anywhere between languages from NENA. This means that left languages mode a team by which innovations spread if you’re Halabja remained unchanged from the her or him.